Casey Pittman / Mychael Ball / Gabriel Hidalgo / Brent Lambert-Zaffino
Ready? Set? GO!
1) “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”
This is a quote by William Randolph Hearst who essentially started “yellow journalism.” Yellow journalism became a coined term for using attention grabbing photos or headlines to sell news.
2) Creel Committee on Public Information
President Woodrow Wilson started this committee during World War I. The goal was to rally support for America’s entry into the war. A journalist named George Creel lead the committee across the states giving speeches and spreading a pro-war message to citizens.
3) Payne Fund Studies
The Payne Fund Studies were conducted in the early ‘30s, and analyzed the influential effects of movies on children. It was one of the first large scale research studies in regards to media influence.
4) GSR (and no, this does not stand for gunshot residue)
This one was a bit tricky, but I believe the acronym GSR that is the most relevant to media would be the Government Social Research. This is a government group in the UK that studies policies of an organization on a social basis. They gather evidence of social behaviors and thus edit and make decisions based on their data.
5) Herbert Blumer
Herbert Blumber was important to the history of media effects for various reasons. He was the president of the American Sociological Association and he was popular for his theory of Symbolic Interactionism, which is the process of interaction in the formation of meanings for individuals.
6) “The commercial movies are in an unsavory mess”
This quote is from Lowery and Defleur and they thought that the study of media effects was one of the causes for the beliefs about the media being dangerous, causing pervertion and upsetting the proper social order.
7) War of the Worlds
This was important because when it was broadcasted over radio in 1938 it was described so realistically that people were panicking because they thought that there was a real alien invasion going on.
8) Magic Bullet Model of mass communication (sometimes called Hypodermic Needle)
This theory implied that media had a powerful and immediate effect on its audiences. The name refers to the media “shooting” or “injecting” its audiences with messages that would trigger a specific response.
9) The People’s Choice Study (1940s) & Paul Lazarsfeld
Lazarsfeld is the founder of modern empirical sociology. The People’s Choice study involved Lazarsfeld and documented trends in a political campaign. The study introduced the two-step flow of communications. This idea based itself around the notion that there were opinion leaders in the media and there were those who viewed the media became opinion followers.
10) The Limited Effects Perspective & Joseph Klapper
The Limited Effects perspective asserts that, because people interpret things in a variety of ways, that the media does not have a great influence over them. Klapper was a leader in this theory, utilizing it in his 1960 book “The effects of Mass Communication.”
11) Frederic Wertham
Frederic Wertham was an American psychiatrist who believed that violent images and messages in media directly effected the development of children. He also wote a book called “The war on Children” which spoke of how comic books and other mediums with violent tropes did not benefit the American child’s civil upbringing.
12) Robert Liebert & Joyce Sprafkin
Liebert and Sprafkin were psychologist who researched and wrote on the effects of television on children.
13) Selective Exposure Theory
This theory suggests that people tend to favor information based on their attitudes, values, and beliefs. In regards to media, people consume all kinds of media, but are influenced by information that supports their values.
14) Micro-level media effects (and give example(s))
The media that affects an individual is known as a micro-level effect.
Ex. A viewer’s physiological arousal during a horror film
15) Macro-level media effects (and give example(s))
The media that affects a community is known as a macro-level effect.
Ex. Studying a local radio station’s audience